The potential showed a small drop during the galvanostatic stage. inhibition of chloride-induced pitting and crevice corrosion. Crevice corrosion affects the integrity of stainless steels used in components exposed to seawater. Traditionally, crevice corrosion testing involves the use of artificial crevice formers to obtain a critical crevice potential, which is a measure of the crevice corrosion resistance of the alloy. In order to predict corrosion damage on passive metals, it is essential to use statistical methods and semi-empirical models, but at the same time we must maintain active inquiry into the fundamental deterministic processes that occur during localized corrosion. Crevice corrosion initiation was significantly, affected by temperature. Crevice corrosion is most common in areas where metal components are joined. Alloys S32750 and S31254 suffered crevice corrosion in the entire tem-, perature range. Oxyanions were tested as inhibitors of the chloride-induced crevice corrosion of Alloy 22, at 90 °C. Pitting potential range and pitting potentials. Corrosion products along with, PD tests. A.K. Ni-Cr-Mo alloys are highly resistant to general and localized corrosion, but they may suffer crevice corrosion in aggressive environmental conditions, such as high-chloride concentra- tions, applied potentials, and temperatures. Abdulsalam, H.M. Alghamdi, “Susceptibility of 254 SMO Alloys to Crevice Corrosion, 13. Ni-Cr-Mo, . forward and reverse potentiodynamic scans, (b) potentiostatic stage. The repassivation potential of alloy, the tested conditions. selected conditions. Crevice corrosion: Similar to pitting, crevice corrosion occurs at a specific location. The same behaviour was observed in other works. The repassivation potentials from the PD-GS-PD technique were conservative and reproducible. How-, ever, the repassivation behavior of the alloys was less affected by temperature. In the solution annealed condition the critical crevice condition (CCT) as determined by various independent techniques was up to 30°C higher for UNS S39274 than for UNS S32750. Financial support from the Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica of the Ministerio de, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva and from, bition of pitting in neutral halide solutions”, corrosion behavior of some conventional and high alloy stainless steels in seawater” Corrosion, 10. This review particularly focuses on the inhibition of crevice corrosion of alloy 22, which has been thoroughly studied in the past decade. The morphology of the corroded surface under the washer tooth was studied. PD-GS-PD tests. The most significant varia-, Figure 8: Crevice corrosion (a) repassivation potential and (b) current density after 20 hours of, polarization from PD-PS-PD tests as a function of the applied potential in the potentiostatic, Another set of PD-PS-PD tests was performed for the three tested alloys in [Cl. ... At higher potentials crevice corrosion current density decreases possibly due to the release of inhibiting molybdate ions from the alloy into the solution. Researchers had,  previously claimed that either one or the other of the two factors was responsible for i, corrosion, but recently it has been shown, Both the potential drop and the change in composition of the crevice electrolyte are caused,  by deoxygenation of the crevice and a separation of electroactive areas, with net anodic reactions, occurring within the crevice and net cathodic reactions occurring exterior to the crevice (on the bold. Polished surfaces display higher resistance to pitting. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Some of the phenomena occurring within the crevice may be somewhat reminiscent of galvanic, two connected metals + single environment, one metal part + two connected environments, However, there are sufficient differences to warrant a separate treatment. In general, Figure 6: Repassivation potential from PD-GS-, Considering the results obtained in the PD-GS-PD tests described above, PD-PS-PD tests were per-. The narrower and deeper (relative to its width) a crevice is the worse attack will be. Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Crevice corrosion is an electrochemical oxidation-reduction (redox) process, which occurs within localized volumes of stagnant solution trapped in pockets, corners or beneath a shield (seal, deposit of sand, gasket, fastener, etc.). At 30ºC, the forward potential scan reached transpassive dissolution potentials as, observed for alloy S32750. This observation was in agreement with the alloys PRE, alloys showed comparable repassivation potentials within experimental error (Figures 6 and 9). The stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour of two lean-duplex stainless steels (DSS 2304 and LDSS 2404) was studied by slow strain-rate tests (SSRT) in 20% NaCl solution at 80 °C (pH about 6) and in NACE TM-0177 solution at 25 °C (pH 2.7), both in the absence and in the presence of thiosulphate ions (S2O3²⁻). Alloy S32654 did not suffer crevice corrosion at, 30ºC, but only at 60 and 90ºC. The polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-wrapped ceramic crevice formers formed more severe crevices, leading to higher repassivation potentials than the solid PTFE crevice formers. In addition, stainless steel suffered more serious localized corrosion with the increase of the droplet size. Figure 9 shows, ture. Crevice corrosion is an “autocatalytic process ” M+n M+n O2 Cl - Metal Metal Schematic illustration of crevice corrosion between two riveted sheets. A material's resistance to crevice corrosion is usually evaluated and ranked using the critical crevice temperature (CCT) in accordance with the ASTM Standard G48-03: Standard Test Methods for Pitting and Crevice Corrosion of Stainless Steels and Alloys by Use of FeCl 3. However, they showed an, other alloy / environment systems (e.g. XPS measurements have been carried out to detect and define the products that formed on the surface of 254 SMO in 22 % NaCl at 30 °C after three days in three situations: without applied potential, at two applied potentials = 300 and 600 mVSCE. Figure 11: Images of alloy specimens after crevice corrosion tests. disappearance of some anodic sites. The critical acidification model proposed by Prof. J.R Galvele predicts that the critical crevice potential is the minimum potential required to maintain an acidic solution with a critical pH inside either a pit or a crevice. Corrosion handbook page 9 1.2.3. 22,37,38 In fact, Martinez et al. Le.. the potential at which the current reaches the passive current measured on the forward scan. The corrosion penetrates the mass of the metal, with limited diffusion of ions. Crevice corrosion occurred below some of the crev, transpassive dissolution were observed after PD-GS-, S32654, S31254, and S32750 in chloride solutions, at different temperatures. One important factor affecting crevice corrosion of passive metals is the crevice geometry, e.g., the gap of the crevice. Specifically, above the critical pitting temperature (CPT), the potential required to precipitate an anodic salt film in a cavity of relevant size is susceptible to straightforward modeling and experimentation and provides a robust predictor of the pitting potential. Firstly, anodic potentiodynamic polarization curves were conducted in different simulated pit environments at various temperatures. ... 21 and Giordano et al. M. Rincón Ortíz, M.A. bars indicate the standard deviation. should be avoided in crevice corrosion testing since the proc-, for alloys S32750 and S31254, and for tests at, in the vicinity of the previously determined, included potentials higher and lower than the corresponding, of the tested alloys as a function of tempera-, ] = 10,000 ppm solutions (Figures 6 and 9). In this work, the influence of tungsten on the crevice corrosion resistance of three super duplex stainless steels (SDSS) containing 0.0, 0.6, and 2.1 wt.% W was determined. Figure 7a shows the, erved in the PD-GS-PD tests for the three tested, ss the applied potential. The eight forms are: (1) uniform, or general attack, (2) galvanic, or two-metal corrosion, (3) crevice corrosion, (4) pitting, (5) intergranular corrosion, (6) selective leaching, or parting, (7) erosion corrosion, and (8) stress corrosion. These values were compared to repas- sivation potentials obtained from the PD-GS-PD technique to assess its reliability. They reported that the alloying elements Cr, Bäck and Singh studied the crevice corrosion of sev-, They reported that crevice corrosion resistance increase as, ed with crevice corrosion decrease linearly with the, Arab et al. Electrochemical parameters indicated that 6% Mo alloy exhibited higher crevice corrosion resistance than 316L alloy. Crevice Corrosion Testing ASTM G78 - Standard Guide for Crevice Corrosion TestingASTM G78 - Standard Guide for Crevice Corrosion Testing In this test, washers make a number of contact sites on either side of the specimens. which led to crevice corrosion. 12. This investigation will provide evidence regarding the influence of W in passive film stability and repassivation kinetics. The crevice can be between metal to metal or metal to non-metal contact areas that are sometimes called faying surfaces. These oxyanions are crevice corrosion inhibitors. By Gerald O. Recently, as a variation of the THE method, the potentiodynamic-galvano- static-potentiodynamic (PD-GS-PD) technique was introduced. The oil and gas industry regularly uses Type 25Cr super duplex stainless steels (SDSS) for components exposed to seawater and hydrocarbon environments in topside facilities downhole and subsea equipment. The resistance of a material to crevice corrosion can be ranked and evaluated by its critical crevice temperature (CCT), but this has to be in accordance with the ASTM Standard G48-03. The crevice corrosion of Grade-2 titanium has been studied in 1.0 mol/L NaCl at various temperatures (120 C and 150 C) and oxygen concentrations using a galvanic coupling technique. Figure 3 shows the PD-GS-PD tests for austenitic alloy S31254 (PRE, chloride solutions. for the PD-GS-PD and PD-PS-PD, respectively. The system that was studied, nickel in 0.5 M H2SO4, is one in which the potential (IR) drop in the crevice is the controlling factor in the initiation and propagation of crevice corrosion. The bottom of the crevice becomes anodic, and as chloride ions concentrate, it becomes an acidic micro-environment. We pointed out that the behavior of alloy S32654 at 60ºC resembles those of alloys S32750 and, S31254 at 30ºC. Arab, M.I. The geometry of the crevice will influence its susceptibility to attack and the speed of progress. Pit origin and formation in stainless steels are discussed according to results of investigations from the following points of view: cantly lower than that at the alloy surface in contact with the bulk solution due to a large ohmic drop. Application of Galvele’s model requires an estimation of both the diffusion length and the i vs. E behavior of the metal in the solution inside the crevice. The corroded sample was studied using EIS technique. The PD-GS-PD technique was used to estimate the critical crevice repassivation temperature by performing tests at different temperatures. Such stagnant microenvironments tend to occur in crevices Process such as those formed under gaskets, washers, insulation material, fastener heads, surface deposits, disbonded scoating, threads, lap joints and clamps. for the tested alloys in conditions where a peak appeared in reverse scan. Analysis of the current-time relationship gives information on dependence of potential on the anodic metal dissolution process. Crevice corrosion is a localized form of corrosion usually associated with a stagnant solution on the micro-environmental level. However, at 60 and 90ºC the three tested, ice corrosion resistance of alloys S32750, S31254, . Results showed that despite the various assumptions and simplifications made by Galvele, the model correctly predicted the occurrence of crevice corrosion of both UNS S32750 and UNS S31803 close to room temperature in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl environment. may also lead to transpassive dissolution of the alloys. Crevice corrosion of alloy S32654 did not occur at 30ºC, ]. Shape of pits that can be observed in different potential ranges and under different corrosion conditions are discussed: regular etch pits, hemispherically-shaped pits, under-hollowing and elongated areal pits. Martinez at al. If it were the case that atomistic events occurring within the intact passive film were responsible for, say, the beneficial effect of alloyed molybdenum, then we would have a gigantic job to do. In general, PD-PS-PD tests caused a deeper localized attack due to, the longer polarization compared to that of PD-GS-PD tests (20-hour potentiostatic vs. 2-hour gal-, vanostatic polarization) as observed by comparing Figures 11e (PD-GS-PD) and 11f (PD-PS-PD) for, alloy S32654. Crevice corrosion of stainless steels (Figure 33.4 (a)) has a similar mechanism to pitting corrosion. The localized corrosion resistance of alloy S32750 as a function of temperature, and chloride concentration was difficult to explain and this could be the result of the dual phase in the, alloy. 4.1 This guide covers procedures for crevice-corrosion testing of iron-base and nickel-base stainless alloys in seawater. The objective of this work is to compare different electrochemical methods for determining the repassivation potential of alloy 22; these include cyclic potentiodynamic polarisation, Tsujikawa-Hisamatsu electrochemical, potentiodynamic-potentiostatic-potentiodynamic and potentiodynamic-galvanostatic-potentiodynamic methods. Figure 7b shows that crevice corrosion started after 2000-4000 seconds of polari-, zation in stage 2 of the PD-PS-PD tests regardle, the effective corroded area was approximately 100 ti, Figure 7: PD-PS-PD tests for duplex alloy S32750 in [Cl. Based on the choice of constants previously discussed, it was concluded that ohmic drop had a negligible contribution to the critical crevice potential, which explains why a similar critical potential was obtained, ... [27][28][29][30][31][32][33] The different parameters in Eq. M. Rincón Ortíz, M.A. Potentiodynamic results showed that 6% Mo alloy possessed a remarkable resistance to crevice corrosion compared with 316L alloy when they are tested in the same solution. LOCALIZED CORROSION BEHAVIOUR OF Ni-BASE SUPERALLOYS. The origin of pitting corrosion and the pitting potentials are discussed in terms of a chemisorption process and a transport and/or transference theory. At 30ºC, the tested. Austenitic alloy S31254 tested at 30ºC in [Cl, ] from 10,000 to 100,000 ppm led to a peak of i, (Figure 8b). Corrosion for Engineers Dr. Derek H. Lister Chapter 3: Eight Forms of Corrosion page 3 - 5 Corroded weathering steel I-beam. of alloys S31254 and S32654 decreased with increasing temperatures and chloride concentrations. such as molybdates and chromates which are released in these conditions. This value of E(R.CREV) is unambiguous, conservative, and more reproducible for Alloy 22 in the solutions studied. specimens and experimental setup were identical, in Figure 2). The i vs. E response of the two stainless steels was determined in acidified solutions of various chloride concentrations, which simulate those found in an active crevice. reported that crevice corrosion current of alloy, Reliable testing methods and crevicing devices are, apped ceramic are more demanding crevice formers, There are a few works reported in literature regarding to crevice corrosion of, of the alloys in weight percent are listed in Ta-, of approximate dimensions 19 mm x 19 mm x 9, ) was purged through the solution 1 hour prior to, and Chemical Composition of the Tested Alloys in Weight Percent, The PD-GS-PD method was used in most of cases while, . While the test principles have been applied to many alloy systems, the scope of the chapter is on stainless steels and nickel-based alloys. Consequently, transpassive potentials were, attained. The most severe form of corrosion that included almost 90 % of the attacks was crevice corrosion, while the remaining 10 % of attacks was due to pitting corrosion. Potential decreased 0.2-0.3 V during the galvanostatic stage due to crevice co, propagation. Giordano, M. Rincón Ortíz, M.A. Functions dependent on the potential which are important for pitting corrosion, effect of inhibitors and results of different methods of investigation are described. The repassivation potential of alloy S32750 did not show a clear dependence neither with temperature, nor with chloride concentration, in the tested conditions. Crevice corrosion is a localized form of corrosion usually associated with a stagnant solution on the micro-environmental level. The reverse scans of PD-GS-PD tests in alloys S32750 and S31254 at 30ºC, and, alloy S32654 at 60ºC (Figures 2-4) indicated that crevice corrosion current density peaked in a potential. Frankel, “Crevice Corrosion Repassivation of Alloy 22 in Aggressive Environ-, 20. ex S32750, and super-austenitic S31254 and S32654, the crevice corrosion kinetics in the tested condi-, s steels avoid the formation of rust and provide low, similar amounts of austenite and ferrite. Crevice corrosion refers to corrosion occurring in confined spaces to which the access of the working fluid from the environment is limited. The factors that may limit the initiation and slow or stop the propagation of crevice corrosion are addressed. Crevice corrosion, ] = 100,000 ppm (Figure 4b). Pitting can be initiated by a small surface defect, being a scratch or a local change in composition, or a damage to protective coating. of crevice corroded alloy S32750 after PD-GS-PD tests in [Cl, 11d show images of crevice corroded alloy S31254 afte, conditions. Crevice Corrosion occurring on a Test specimen ofType 316 SS (Stainless Steel) in Acid Condensate Zone ofa Model S02 Scrubber. Even though other elements, such as Cr and Mo, have been studied in much more detail than W, research has shown that an optimal composition exists, in which W in solid solution improves localized corrosion resistance. THE technique was further modified to allow determination of the crevice repassivation temperature (T(R.CREV)). Carranza, R.B. Crevice corrosion is the localized corrosion of a metal surface at, or immediately adjacent to, an area that is shielded from the full environment of close proximity between the metal and the sur-face of another material.4 Crevices can appear as narrow cracks, e.g., after the overload of a metal - C.M. Crevice corrosion is considered much more dangerous than uniform corrosion since its rate is 10-100 times higher. often referred to as "hideout" (HO), whereas the o, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crevice_corrosion, For a given crevice type, two factors are important in the initiation of crevice corrosion: the chemical, composition of the electrolyte in the crevice and the potential drop into the crevice. film (passive film) on its surface, but it is possible under certain conditions for this oxide film to, down, for example in halide solutions or reducing acids. Crevice corrosion is defined as an intensely localized corrosion on a metal surface that frequently occurs at, or directly adjacent to, a gap or crevice between the two connected surfaces. At 60ºC, the forward potential scan reached trans-, . corrosion susceptibility of alloy 22” CORROSION 2005, , R.M. For austenitic alloy S31254, the range of E, plex alloy S32750 and austenitic alloy S32654, the range of E, Figure 9: Repassivation potential from PD-PS-PD tests as a function of temperature for the, Figure 10: Repassivation and protection potentials from PD-PS-PD tests as a function of tem-. Consequently, the alloy within the crevice may be in the full passive range while the alloy in contact. Sulphate showed RCRIT values of 1 and 2 in 0.1 mol/L and 1 mol/L NaCl solutions, respectively. 14. Crevice corrosion is regarded as localized corrosion. Si los daños causados son por medios físicos entonces se le llama erosión o desgaste. CCT is the minimum temperature in °C that can produce a crevice attack, and is found to be lower than the critical pitting temperature (CPT). processes. The more aggressive the liquid outside the crevice, the more likely it is that the crevice will be attacked. 05610 (Houston, TX: NACE, 2005). However, the, is the highest potential at which crevice corrosion will not initiate after 20, was defined from PD-PS-PD tests between the maximum E, at which crevice corrosion occurred for each, ice former spots. In this work, a new criterion for determining the crevice repassivation potential (E(R.CREV)) is proposed. Rebak, “Determination of the Crevice Cor-, rosion Stabilization and Repassivation Potentials of a Corrosion-Resistant Alloy”, 17. Tungstate produced a repassivation potential increase without reaching a complete inhibition. studied the corrosion behavior of some conventional. The, current decreased in the reverse scan showing a peak at 0.0-0.2, At 60 and 90ºC, crevice corrosion initiation led to passivity breakdown at potentials of 0.0-0.2 V, ures 3a and 3b). Chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) always initiates in actively growing corrosion sites and will occur whenever the rate of localized corrosion is lower than the rate of crack growth, the latter being governed mainly by the alloy composition and structure and by temperature. "Concentration factors" of many millions are not. environmentally assisted cracking. Moreover, E(R.CREV) was independent of hold current density in the crevice region. Super duplex stainless steels are ferritic-austenitic stainless steels with 25 wt% Cr and a pitting resistance equivalent (PRE) ≥ 40. In general, the repassivation potential of alloys S31254 and S32654 decreased with, increasing temperatures (Figures 6 and 9). The effect of W on localized corrosion resistance was studied by comparing two commercial SDSS chemistries: a low-W modified UNS S32750 and a high W-containing UNS S39274. [29][30][31]. The crevice corrosion susceptibility of the alloys may also reach a peak, for the tested alloys as a function of temperature. 3629–3647. In these cases, the PD-PS-PD technique may be a better option than the PD-GS-PD tech-, of inhibiting oxyanions, as discussed above, which may affect the determination of the repassivation, important statistical dispersion when compared to, We have determined the effects of chloride concentration and temperature on the crevice corrosion of, super-duplex and super-austenitic stainless steels. The CPP and THE methods were also considered for comparison. The increase of the cathodic area and the three-phase boundary (TPB) length was believed to be the reason. Conditions for the Existence of Pitting Corrosion. However, at 60 and 90ºC the repassivation potentials of the alloys were similar, the Universidad Nacional de San Martín from, molybdenum in austenitic stainless steels in the inhi-, Arabian Journal of Science and Engineering. Small holes, gasket surfaces, lap joints, bolt, rivet heads, nuts, washers, surface deposits; all can cause C.C. crevice corrosion in the initial warm oxidizing conditions anticipated in a deep geological repository. Additionally, long-term potentiostatic experiments were conducted as a function of temperature in natural seawater to validate PD-GS-PD testing. Results show that crevice corrosion of Alloy 22 is affected by the crevice former materials and by the surface finishes of the crevice former and specimen. However, rather than occurring in plain sight, crevice corrosion—as its name implies—occurs in crevices. Outside this range, W is ineffective or even detrimental. Error, ] = 10,000 and 100,000 ppm solutions. The lower crevice corrosion, current densities observed at the secondary passivity may be due to the inhibiting effect of oxyanions. For 6% Mo alloy, the critical crevice corrosion temperature was higher than the testing temperature. The PD-PS-PD technique may be a better option for determining E, esses occurring in this potential region may interfere with crevice corrosion. = 43) and super-austenitic stainless steels S31254 (PRE, = 55) were studied. investigate the scaling laws that govern crevice corrosion. Crevice corrosion caused by the existence ofsmall volumes ofstagnant (corrosive) solution. The crevice geometry can be affected by the properties of the materials used as the crevice formers, i.e., a polymeric crevice former can conform to the surface roughness of a metal specimen, which helps the creation of a tighter crevice gap. Top PDF crevice corrosion: The Influence of Alloying Elements on The Crevice Corrosion Behaviour of Ni-Cr-Mo Alloys Cr makes them susceptible to corrosion in the presence of oxidizing species such as ferric and cupric ions and dissolved oxygen. This feature was previously obs, alloys (Figures 2-4). We have applied the PD-GS-PD technique setting i, than the crevice corrosion current density after 20 hours of polarization for environmental conditions, where crevice corrosion initiation was difficult (Figure 8b). At 30ºC, alloy S32654 clearly outperformed alloys S32750 and S31254 as indi-, The crevice corrosion current density of the tested alloys showed a maximum value in a potential re-, gion above the repassivation potential and below the secondary passivity. The PD-GS-PD and PD-PS-PD methods were developed for the more, of the same order of some Ni-Cr-Mo alloys, such as alloy 625, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100, Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Consho-, = 51. With respect to the models used to describe crevice corrosion, traditionally they have been based on the Fontana and Green model13 and the formalizations of Oldfield and Sutton.14,15 Within those frameworks, crevice corrosion begins with the deoxygenation of the crevice and shifting of the cathodic reactions to the bulk surface. Cr–Mo–W–N alloys” Corrosion Science 50 (2008): pp. Al-, loys S32750 and S31254 suffered crevice corrosion in t, only suffered crevice corrosion at 60 and 90ºC. The alloying elements Ni, Mo and Cr do not distribute evenly between the ferrite and the austen-, ite phases. , alloy C-276 suffers crevice corrosion in concentrated acid. The SCC susceptibility of the two alloys was compared to that of LDSS 2101, Localized corrosion of 304 stainless steel under droplets of 1M sodium chloride solution was investigated by the wire beam electrode (WBE) method. The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of crevice former materials on the evolution of crevice corrosion damage of Alloy 22 (UNS N06022). and S31254 at 30ºC (Figures 2-4). crostructure of duplex alloy S32750 was observed in the crevice corroded area (Figures 11a and 11b). The fine-grain mi-. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 619 , 544-552. tentials such as those attained during the galvanostatic step (stage 2) and then migrate into the crevice. 40 are considered highly resistant to localized corrosion. was similar for the three tested alloys. Pitting corrosion was detected on all clock positions, but The method involved creviced specimens fabricated based on ASTM (3) standards G-192 and G-48, which contained 24 artificially creviced spots formed by two ceramic washers (crevice formers) wrapped with a 70 µm-thick Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape. K.J. Crevice corrosion refers to corrosion occurring in confined spaces to which the access of the working fluid from the environment is limited. NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series, Crevice corrosion of solution annealed 25Cr duplex stainless steels: Effect of W on critical temperatures, INFLUENCE OF TUNGSTEN ON PASSIVITY BREAKDOWN AND REPASSIVATION OF 25CR SUPER DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL, Use of the Critical Acidification Model to Estimate Critical Localized Corrosion Potentials of Duplex Stainless Steels, Crevice Corrosion Repassivation of Ni-Cr-Mo Alloys by Cooling, Effect of Tungsten on the Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Resistance of Type 25Cr Super Duplex Stainless Steels, Crevice corrosion testing methods for measuring repassivation potential of alloy 22, Inhibition of localized corrosion in chromium containing stainless alloys, Determination of the Crevice Corrosion Stabilization and Repassivation Potentials of a Corrosion-Resistant Alloy, Factors affecting the crevice corrosion susceptibility of alloy 22, Effect of Polymer and Ceramic Crevice Formers on the Crevice Corrosion of Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy 22, Susceptibility of 254 SMO Alloys to Crevice Corrosion in NaCl Solution, Oxyanions as inhibitors of chloride-induced crevice corrosion of Alloy 22, Crevice Corrosion Repassivation of Alloy 22 in Aggressive Environments, 2001 W.R. Whitney Award Lecture: Understanding the Corrosion of Stainless Steel, FeCrAl for Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding.

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