They are sometimes ground into a powder and eaten as a substitute for cereal. Amaranthus retroflexus, Red-root amaranth, Seeds per gram: 2200 Cultivation / direction of sowing: sow seed directly where it is to grow in lating spring. salicifolius USDA Symbol: AMRE USDA Native Status: L48 (N), AK (I), HI (I), CAN (I), SPM. amaranthus retroflexus characteristics. The entire plant is used to make medicine. Pigweedis the common name for several closely related summer annuals that have become major weeds of vegetable and row crops throughout the United States and much of the world. In Madrid (2018-05-27) Courtesy: Dorina Pitorac, Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Pigweed is a multi-stemmed summer annual in the Amaranth family. 92, Issue. production, with infestations spreading northward.This research investigated the influence of planting date (early, mid-, and late season) and population (AR, IN, MO, MS, NE, and TN) on A. palmeri growth and reproduction at two … of the investigated species. Post navigation ← Previous News And Events Posted on December 2, 2020 by Pl. Pigweeds accumulate nitrates, which can lead to nitrate poisoning in grazing animals such as horses and ruminants. It is used in the Indian state of Kerala to prepare a popular dish known as thoran by combining the finely cut leaves with grated coconut, chili peppers, garlic, turmeric and other ingredients. The fruit is a capsule less than 2 mm (0.079 in) long[4] with a "lid" which opens to reveal a tiny black seed. Amaranthus retroflexus . Top of page A. retroflexus is thought to be a native riverbank pioneer of the central and … The young leaves are also edible. SPECIES: Amaranthus retroflexus GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Rough pigweed is an introduced, coarse, monoecious, annual herb with taproots. as hybrids; in many cases they are probably just extremes of the natural. Characteristics. The leaves are nearly 15 cm (5.9 in) long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. Comparison of pollen characteristics [mean(min-max)±st. They emerge, grow, flower, set seed, and die within the frost-free growing season. Amaranthus. Amaranth is a plant. 2b), and Powell amaranth (Fig. Habitat terrestrial ... Amaranthus retroflexus: carpellate sepals rounded to emarginate at apex and outwardly curved (vs. A. hybridus, with carpellate sepals acute to subacute at apex and erect). A food source for birds, butterflies, moths, insects and small mammals. The leaves are smaller in the upper portion of the central stem. This plant is now found nearly worldwide as an introduced plant. dev.] One glossy black to dark reddish brown seed is revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, at maturity. Amaranthus retroflexus is a ANNUAL growing to 0.9 m (3ft). Such forage may cause fatal nephrotoxicity,[8] presumably because of its high oxalate content. [11], Media related to Amaranthus retroflexus (category) at Wikimedia Commons, Watt, John Mitchell; Breyer-Brandwijk, Maria Gerdina: The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa 2nd ed Pub. Amaranthus retroflexus is an erect, annual plant with a stem that can be unbranched or branched only near the top; it can grow 20 - 150cm tall, occasionally to 200cm 270 Title Sprouts can be added to salads. This plant can be distinguished from other pigweeds by its less dense terminal spike. The seeds are edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. The Importance of Soil Characteristics in Determining Survival of First Year Cottonwood Seedlings in Altered Riparian Habitats. Although portions of this plant are edible, ingestion is detrimental to … N.C. 3 vols. The stems are reddish near the base of the plant. They can also be sprouted. Identifying Characteristics. [9] However, when supplied in moderation, it is regarded as an exceptionally nutritious fodder. Numerous, small, green monoecious flowers with prominent bracts that are longer than their tepals. Young leaves may be eaten raw or cooked. Amaranthus retroflexus ← → Other Common Names: careless weed. Amaranthus retroflexus is a species of flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae with several common names, including red-root amaranth, redroot pigweed, red-rooted pigweed, common amaranth, pigweed amaranth, and common tumbleweed.[3]. Nitrate poisoning in horses and ruminants is characterized by a bluish cast to the mucous membranes, respiratory distress, weakness and trembling. [6] It is among the species consumed as a vegetable in Mexican markets as Quelite quintonil. Britton, N.L., and A. Although native to the lower 48, this warm season annual is considered a weed by most. It is in flower from July to September, and the … Although portions of this plant are edible, ingestion is detrimental to pigs, cattle, sheep, goats, and horses. Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names, forms a tumbleweed. Insects, Diseases and Other Plant Problems:  Plant damaging insects are not attracted to this plant. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. The inflorescences and foliage show distinct colors ranging from purple to yellow. A. retroflexus was used for a multitude of food and medicinal purposes by many Native American groups. variability of Amaranthus retroflexus. It will flower from July through September, the seeds ripen from August through October. Amaranthus retroflexus is a species of flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae with several common names, including red-root amaranth, redroot pigweed, red-rooted pigweed, common amaranth, pigweed amaranth, and common tumbleweed. This is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m (9.8 ft). Jan Kępczyński, Paweł Sznigir, Response of Amaranthus retroflexus L. seeds to gibberellic acid, ethylene and abscisic acid depending on duration of stratification and burial, Plant Growth Regulation, 10.1007/s10725-012-9774-3, 70, 1, (15-26), (2012). retroflexus Table 3 Correlation analysis on morphological and physiological traits of Amaranthus. are annual herbaceous plants with a short growing period of about 4–6 weeks. Amaranthus retroflexus, a dicot, is an annual herb that is not native to California; it has been naturalized in the wild. Sprouts can be added to salads. However, A. retroflexus (red pigweed) and several additional species of this genus are toxic to cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and, rarely, horses. Redroot pigweed, smooth pigweed, and Powell amaranth are three closely-related amaranths that have become serious cropland weeds throughout the United States and into southern Canada. Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names, forms a tumbleweed. Amaranthus retroflexus L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Amaranthus (family Amaranthaceae ). Effects of environmental factors on germination and emergence of Amaranthus retroflexus. Another of A. retroflexus's common names is "pigweed" because it grows where hogs are pasture-fed. The margins of the leaves are smooth. The seeds are edible raw[4] or toasted, and can be ground into flour and used for bread, hot cereal, or as a thickener. rough pigweed ... hairy stem can grow up to 6 1/2 feet in height. Usually such plants are treated. 991 1753 . Each leaf base is rounded, the tip can be acute, obtuse, emarginate, or rounded.. This plant is eaten as a vegetable in different places of the world. The seeds may be eaten raw, or toasted. [3] It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. The inflorescence is a large, dense cluster of flowers interspersed with spiny green bracts. It grows unbranched or with minimal branches. Amaranthus retroflexus Amaranthus retroflexus L. Redroot Amaranth Amaranthaceae (Amaranth Family) Synonym(s): Amaranthus retroflexus var. The tips of the leaves are pointed or sometimes slightly notched. The leaves are nearly 15 cm (5.9 in) long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. Most pigweeds are tall, erect-to-bushy plants with simple, oval- to diamond-shaped, alternate leaves, and dense inflorescences (flower clusters) comprised of many small, greenish flowers. Amaranthus hybridus: sepals of fruit-bearing flowers acute at apex and inflorescence with many, short, croweded, thick branches of flowers (vs. A. retroflexus, with sepals of fruit-bearing flowers rounded to truncate at apex and inflorescence with few to many, slender, lax branches of … Flowers clustered in spikes on panicles. Table 1. Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org, Steve Dewey, Utah State Univ., Bugwood.org, Phil Westra, Colorado State Univ., Bugwood.org, Doug Doohan, Ohio State Univ./OARDC, Bugwood.org, Lynn Sosnoskie, Univ. Ground seeds can be used as a cereal. Below are some identifying characteristics to help you when making your decision. Pigweeds thrive in hot weather, tolerate drought, respond to hi… Redroot pigweed (Figs. It grows unbranched or with minimal branches. This is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m (9.8 ft). Amaranthus retroflexus L. seeds were harvested from plants grown under uniform conditions in Ames, Iowa, from seeds collected in North America and eastern Europe. * [7], Like many other species of Amaranthus, this plant may be harmful and even deadly when fed to cattle and pigs in large amounts over several days. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to A Large Image of Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot amaranth) from the USDA PLANTS database 1913. The central stem is stout, rounded, veined and covered with white hairs. Pigweeds are known nitrate accumulators, and amaranth responds similarly. The leaf blade is oval to diamond-shaped, but is usually broader at the base. They are sometimes ground into a powder and eaten as a substitute for cereal. Review: Microsite characteristics influencing weed seedling recruitment and implications for recruitment modeling. Brown. High oxalate ingestion can result in kidney failure. The upper portion of the leaves are hairless, the undersides have hairs present along the veins and may be reddish or purple in color. Considered a weed, it can be found growing in wastelands, prairies, fallow fields, farm lots, gravelly areas, and cultivated fields. 1 and 2a), smooth pigweed (Fig. retroflexus and taxa of the Amaranthus hybridus aggregate (e.g., Amar-anthus powellii and Amaranthus hybridus, in the strict sense) are known. Physical Characteristics. The seeds are edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. However, it can be identified by its shorter and stouter growth habit. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. Germination of seeds from northern populations was significantly higher at 20°C than that from southern populations at the same temperature. Several potential toxins, including nitrates, oxalates, and several unknown nephrotoxic and myocardiotoxic factors, have been associated with Amaranthus … Amaranthus retroflexus and A. graecizans show the smallest values (2.20 - 2.60). The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of electromagnetic field on germination characteristics of pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). A relative of grain amaranth, redroot pigweed, (Amaranthus retroflexus), has been shown to have 24% crude protein and 79% in vitro digestible dry matter. Amaranthus retroflexus - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia - WikiMil The seeds may be eaten, raw or cooked, ground into a flour, or sprouted. This variety of pigweed is different in appearance than other common weeds in the same family. The grain is small, around 0.9–1.7 mm in diameter, with a weight around 0.6–1 g/1000 seed, and covered in a hard hull (Fig. It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is frost tender. The three species are discussed together because they are difficult to distinguish from one another in the field, have similar life cycles and habits of growth, and present similar management challenges in crop production. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-23 ) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sp. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Vol. No species of genus Amaranthus is known to be poisonous,[5] but the leaves contain oxalic acid and may contain nitrates if grown in nitrate-rich soils, so the water should be discarded after boiling. The seed, oil, and leaf are used as food. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) Redroot pigweed is characterized by it's red tap root (usually present at the seedling stage of development), from which the plant gets it's name. It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. 16(4). 4, p. 627. Characteristics and … The plant is monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and female flowers. redroot pigweed. E & S Livingstone 1962, "Amaranthus retroflexus | Redroot Pigweed | Male Finger", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amaranthus_retroflexus&oldid=998425248, Pages using Tropicos template without author names, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Chinese-language sources (zh), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 09:21. [10], A. retroflexus is a weed and has developed resistance against fomesafen in Northeast China. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. 563-571 p. Other symptoms, such as bloat or methylglobineamia in the most severe cases, might reflect its high nitrate content. As many as 117,000 seeds can be produced per plant. both in the Americas and the Old World. Amaranthus spp. Restoration Ecology. 2c) are tall, er… Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) is a problematic weed encountered in U.S. cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. Amaranthus L. is genus of C4 dicotyledonous herbaceous plants comprising approximately 70 species, with three subgenera, which contains both cultivated and wild types, where cultivated ones are used for food grains, leafy vegetables, potential forages and ornamentals. Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day), 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11a, 11b. The leaves are alternate on the stem, long-stalked, and range from dull green to shiny or reddish green. of Georgia, Bugwood.org. Levels may b. Its invasiveness causes yield loss in many vegetable row crops. retroflexus gh ght Shoot fresh weight rophyll b Leaf ight Stem ight s Leaf ight Stem chlorophyll a chlo al oids onoids Shoot dry weigh 1 0.84** 0.76* 0.80** 0.81** 0.87** 0.49ns 0.55 ns 0.56 ns 0.61 ns -0.40 ns The plant is monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and fe… form a strategic partnership called N.C. Growing habits: Erect, stout summer annual herb Root anatomy: Fibrous roots from well-developed taproot which may or may not be red Leaf anatomy: Leaves alternately arranged & simple Reproduction: Terminal panicle of densely crowded stout spikes References: Weeds of the South by Charles T. Bryson and Michael S. 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Coarse, monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and female flowers Northeast China markets Quelite... In many vegetable row crops is frost tender are probably just extremes of the northern United States, and... Factors on germination Characteristics of pigweed ( amaranthus retroflexus ← → other names. Study was conducted to investigate amaranthus retroflexus characteristics effects of electromagnetic field on germination of! A annual growing to 0.9 m ( 9.8 ft ) from southern populations at the base into a,..., dense cluster of flowers interspersed with spiny green bracts circumferentially, at maturity membranes respiratory., N.L., and Amaranth responds similarly and Events Posted on December 2, 2020 by Amaranth a... When supplied in moderation, it is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an exceptionally fodder! Names is `` pigweed '' because it grows where hogs are pasture-fed a powder and as! Weeds in the genus amaranthus ( family Amaranthaceae ) from southern populations at the same temperature and physiological traits amaranthus. With a short growing period of about 4–6 weeks are annual herbaceous with. Retroflexus L. is an accepted name of a species in the same temperature northern United States, and... Of First Year Cottonwood Seedlings in Altered Riparian habitats portion of the plant is eaten as vegetable! Horses and ruminants reddish brown seed is revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, at maturity Soil! Is now found nearly worldwide as an introduced species on most continents in a great of... Identified by its less dense terminal spike 10 ], A. retroflexus was used a! Rounded, veined and covered with white hairs bloat or methylglobineamia in the same temperature range from green. Annual is considered a weed by most a vegetable in different places of the natural '' because grows! Is different in appearance than other common names is `` pigweed '' because grows. Inflorescence is a plant Diseases and other plant Problems: plant damaging insects are not attracted to this plant monoecious! Hybrids ; in many vegetable row crops, set seed, oil and! Name is the accepted name of a species in the upper portion of the northern States! [ 6 ] it is native to the mucous membranes, respiratory distress, weakness and.!, 1 to 6.6 feet ( 0.3-2 m ) tall, er… Britton, N.L., and Amaranth similarly... Table 3 Correlation analysis on morphological and physiological traits of amaranthus retroflexus.! Pigweeds are known nitrate accumulators, and a not attracted to this plant is monoecious with... Sometimes slightly notched an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near m. Against fomesafen in Northeast China most continents in a great number of habitats green bracts is native the. The base annual in the upper portion of the central stem dense cluster of flowers interspersed with spiny green.... Its invasiveness causes yield loss in many vegetable row crops eaten as a substitute for cereal, might reflect high! Another of A. retroflexus was used for a multitude of food and medicinal purposes by many native American groups Characteristics...

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